The Civil War Relicman,
Harry Ridgeway.

Winchester, Virginia USA (changed hands 70 times in the Civil War!).

relicman.com.


Ridgeway Reference Archive, Civil War buttons.
Federal general service two piece buttons, 1840's through 1860's generally.

This is the "Ridgeway Reference Archive", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader.   Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author.  None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale.  This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items.  I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All  items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described.   Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission.    This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.


Federal general service buttons, Albert GI94 to GI98 series, listed by backmark groups, individual die variants shown as they are found:



Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing with two solid rings, (19.3mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "EXTRA / (star) QUALITY  (star)", dm,  poorly formed letters between two rings, (ExtraQ18).  Two part convex button, coat size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A48, variant.

B5618     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing with two solid rings, (19.3mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing on stippled background, (19.7mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "EXTRA / (star) (star) (star) QUALITY  (star) (star) (star)", dm,  poorly formed letters on lined or stippled background, (ExtraQ25).  Two part convex button, coat size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215.

B6480     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing on stippled background, (19.7mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing with inner ring of slashes, (21mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "EXTRA / (star) QUALITY (star)"  dm, single inner ring of elongated dots or slashes, this pattern has no periods, ca 1860's, and could be transitional(ExtraQ06).  Two part convex button, coat size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A48.


B4188     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing with inner ring of slashes, (21mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing with two solid rings, (19.2mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "EXTRA / (star) QUALITY (star)", dm,  poorly formed letters between two rings, letters are slightly larger, (ExtraQ18var).  Two part convex button, coat size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A48, variant.


B4189     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing with two solid rings, (19.2mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing, no rings rings, (15mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "EXTRA / (star) QUALITY. (star)" dm, no rings, area around shank is depressed, small size only, very sloppy die likely from Steele & Johnson ca 1860, (ExtraQ22small).  Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As48, variant.


B5888     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality dm stars dividing, no rings rings, (15mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality, flowers dividing, (19.2mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "EXTRA / (flower) (flower) QUALITY  (flower) ", dm,  two solid rings, (ExtraQ20).  Two part convex button, coat size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A49.


B4190     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Extra Quality, flowers dividing, (19.2mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, D Evans & Co Attleboro, inner ring, (20.8mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.   Backmark: "D. EVANS & CO / (star) ATTLEBORO (dot) (star) " dm, inner ring of hyphens, transitional use ca 1860 to post war, (Evans37).  Two part convex button, coat size.
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A2.

B4180     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, D Evans & Co Attleboro, inner ring, (20.8mm)

B6368     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, D Evans & Co Attleboro, inner ring, (20.8mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann & Allien with rays, (23mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  "HORSTMANN & ALLIEN / (dot) NY (dot)" dm between two solid rings, inner ring of rays, Steele & Johnson produced ca 1860, (HorstmannA10).  Two part convex button, large coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A15.


B5791      Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann & Allien with rays, (23mm)
Dug button, recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, HBA Extra, (14mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  " H. B & A. / (star) EXTRA (star) " dm, inner solid ring, this is Horstmann Brothers & Allien, abbreviated mark only used on small button, probably Steele & Johnson ca 1860's, (HorstmannA21small).  Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As13.

B4366     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, HBA Extra, (14mm)

B6481     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, HBA Extra, (14mm)
Four buttons all apparently came off the same jacket.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann & Allien, NY, (14.7mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "HORSTMANN & ALLIEN / N.Y.", dm no rings, small size version, probably Steele & Johnson ca 1860, (HorstmannA12small). Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As, not listed.

B5510     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann & Allien, NY, (14.7mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann Bros & Co Phila, dm inner ring of dots, (21mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops during the Indian War period.  Backmark: "HORSTMANN BROS & CO / (dot) PHILA (two dots under A) (dot)" dm inner ring of dots, Horstmann Brothers used this backmark 1875 to 1893, (HorstmannB17).  Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As, not listed.  Manufactured after the Civil War.

B6341     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann Bros & Co Phila, dm inner ring of dots, (21mm)
Manufactured after the Civil War.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann Bros & Co Phila, dm inner ring of dots, (16mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops, this pattern with the raised shield was prevalent during the Indian War period, 1870's to 1890's. Variations noted in die details.  Backmark: "HORSTMANN BROS & Co (dot under o) / (dot) PHILA (single dot under A) (dot)" dm inner ring of dots, Horstmann Brothers used this backmark 1875 to 1893, (HorstmannB18small). Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As, not listed.  Manufactured after the Civil War.  Variations noted in die details.

B6358     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann Bros & Co Phila, dm inner ring of dots, (16mm)
Manufactured after the Civil War.  Variations noted in die details.

B6359     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann Bros & Co Phila, dm inner ring of dots, (16mm)
  Manufactured after the Civil War.  Variations noted in die details.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann. Philada, dm, (21mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops, this pattern with the raised shield was prevalent during the Indian War period, 1870's to 1890's. Variations noted in die details.  Backmark:  "HORSTMANN. PHILADA / (star)" dm no rings, recessed well around shank, manufacture after 1893, (HorstmannMisc04). Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94.  Manufactured after the Civil War.  Variations noted in die details.

B6342     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Horstmann. Philada, dm, (21mm)
Manufactured after the Civil War.  Variations noted in die details.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, W G Mintzer, Phild, (20.3mm)
Button depicts eagle
facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  "W. G. MINTZER. / PHILD.. " dm, inner ring of dots, outer solid ring, Steele & Johnson ca 1860, (Mintzer08). Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215, not listed.


B5539     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, W G Mintzer, Phild, (20.3mm)
Dug button, recovered: Maryland campaign, by Steve Kirby.
Old Court House Civil War Museum collection.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovills & Co, (14.5mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  "SCOVILLS & Co (dot under the o). / (dot) EXTRA (dot) " dm between two rings, used only for small size, the abbreviated name, Scovills & Co, from the 1840's was used with Scovill Mfg coat buttons of the 1850's and 1860's, as a way to abbreviate the mark on the limited space of a small size button, (ScovillC15Small).  Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As26.

B5507     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovills & Co, (14.5mm)

B5508     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovills & Co, (14.5mm)
 

B5603   Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovills & Co, (14.5mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co rmdc, (19.8mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  "SCOVILL MFG CO / (dot) WATERBURY (dot)" rmdc, ca 1850's, (ScovillM240).  Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A30.

B6011     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co rmdc, (19.8mm)

B6479     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co rmdc, (19.8mm)
Ten buttons apparently came off the same jacket.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co rmdc on stippled field, (19.8mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  "SCOVILL MF'G CO / (dot) WATERBURY (dot)" rmdc on a stippled field, ca 1850's, (ScovillM220).  Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A30.

B5986     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co rmdc on stippled field, (19.8mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co dm rings, (22.8mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units. 
Backmark:  "SCOVILL MF'G CO. / (dot) WATERBURY. (dot) " dm between rings of dots ca 1860's, (ScovillM330).  Two part convex button, large coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A33.


B4183     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co dm rings, (22.8mm)

B5694     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Scovill Mfg Co dm rings, (22.8mm)
Dug button, recovered: central Virginia not confirmed.


Federal general service button, eagle with raised shield, Scovill Mf'g Co Waterbury dm inner ring, (21mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops.  This style with the raised shield is the style predominately used during the Indian War period, 1870's to 1890.  Backmark:  "SCOVILL MF'G CO.  /  WATERBURY. " dm large letters inner ring of dots, manufactured Indian War period, (ScovillM504).  Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI98.  Manufactured after the Civil War.

B6351     Federal general service button, eagle with raised shield, Scovill Mf'g Co Waterbury dm inner ring, (21mm)
Manufactured after the Civil War.


Federal general service button, eagle with raised shield, Scovill Mfg Co Waterbury., dots dividing, dm inner ring, (16mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops.  This style with the raised shield is the style predominately used during the Indian War period, 1870's to 1890.  This variant is noted for an eagle with a short neck and bushy head.  Backmark:  "SCOVILL MFG CO /  (dot) WATERBURY. (dot)" dm  inner ring of dots, manufactured Indian War period, (ScovillM505small).  Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI98.  Manufactured after the Civil War.

B6357     Federal general service button, eagle with raised shield, Scovill Mfg Co Waterbury., dots dividing, dm inner ring, (16mm)
Manufactured after the Civil War.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Steele & Johnson dm between rings, (19.7mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "STEELE & JOHNSON / (dot) " dm between solid rings, (Steele37).  Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A39.


B4184     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Steele & Johnson dm between rings, (19.7mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Superior Quality rmdc, (21.2mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "SUPERIOR / (star) QUALITY (star)" rmdc, stippled channel, likely Steele & Johnson ca 1860, (Superior09).  Two part convex button, large coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215, not listed.

B6151     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Superior Quality rmdc, (21.2mm)
 Dug button, recovered: Charles Town Virginia (now West Virginia) by Brian Irving. 
Old Court House Civil War Museum collection.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Superior Quality rmdc, (16mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "SUPERIOR / QUALITY" rmdc, stippled channel, small size only, (Superior11Small).  Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215, not listed.


B5792      Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Superior Quality rmdc, (16mm)
Dug button, recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co rmdc on stippled field, (20mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units. Backmark: "WATERBURY BUTTON CO / (star) " rmdc on stippled background, ca 1861 to 1865, (Waterbury19).  Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215, not listed.

B6012     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co rmdc on stippled field, (20mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co dm inner ring, (19.7mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units. Backmark: "WATERBURY BUTTON CO. / (star) EXTRA (star)" dm, inner rope ring, transition backmark, 1860's to post war, (Waterbury18).  Two part convex button, large coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A45.

B4191     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co dm inner ring, (19.7mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co dmdc, (19.7mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark: "WATERBURY BUTTON CO / (star) (star)" dmdc mottled channel, ca1860's, (Waterbury24). Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A46.

B4185     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co dmdc, (19.7mm)

B5988     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co dmdc, (19.7mm)


B5989     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, Waterbury Button Co dmdc, (19.7mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, plain back, (21mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  Backmark:  blank back, with a single depressed ring near the rim, maker not known, ca 1860's, (BlankNorth07). Two part convex button, coat size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215A56.

B5610     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, plain back, (21mm)
Dug button, recovered: Harpers Ferry, Virginia, now West Virginia, by Tom Sterling.
Old Court House Civil War Museum collection.


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, plain puff back, (15mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  Backmark, blank back puffed back is convex, small size only, (BlankNorth21Small). Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As56.

B5990     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, plain puff back, (15mm)


Federal general service button, eagle with shield, plain back, (15mm)
Button depicts eagle facing right with patriotic shield, generally intended for enlisted troops and were widely used by both sides including state units.  Backmark:  Backmark:  blank back, with a well around the shank, small size only, maker not known, ca 1860's, (BlankNorth16small). Two part convex button, hat or sleeve size. 
Ref: Albert GI94, Tice GEN215As56.

B6482     Federal general service button, eagle with shield, plain back, (15mm)
Six buttons apparently came off the same jacket.